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12. February 1841

Etter at forsøkene med perkusjonslås hadde pågått siden 1829, ble det ved kongelig resolusjon bestemt at... Read more ...

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11. February 1659

Stormingen av København


12. February 1841

Norge vedtok å bygge om fra flintlås til perkusjon
Etter at forsøkene med perkusjonslås hadde pågått siden 1829, ble det ved kongelig resolusjon bestemt at samtlige håndskytevåpen i Norge skulle bygges om fra flintlås til perkusjonslås. Dette omfattet glattløpede musketter, jeger- og skiløperrifler og pistoler. Resolusjonen sa også at det skulle produseres 500 kammerladningsgeværer til utprøving ved tropp.  

Norge fulgte dermed etter britene, som approbert deres første perkusjonsmuskett i 1838 som erstatning for Brown Bess-musketten. Frankrike fikk sin første perkusjonsmuskett i 1840, selv om de hadde prøvd ut perkusjonsprinsippet på vollgeværer og offiserspistoler helt tilbake til 1831 (Fusil de Rempart Mle 1831 og Pistolet d'officier Mle 1831). Amerikanerne lå ett år etter Norge. U.S. Armys første perkusjonsmuskett ble approbert i 1842.

11. February 1659


Stormingen av København
Svenske soldater stormet København under Karl 10. Gustavs andre danske krig. Svenskene hadde omringet København, og etter at københavnerne hadde stått imot omtrent et halvt år med blokade, bombardementer og angrep, forsøkte svenskene å innta byen ved et storstilt stormangrep. Københavnerne var via spioner blitt advart om angrepet, og var forberedt med våpen og forsvarsplaner.

Det var oppstilt rundt 300 kanoner, mortere og annet artilleri på vollene i København, og utover det var der fordelt og oppstilt våpen av enhver art alt fra musketter og luntebørser til morgenstjerner, ljåer, kokende vann og tjære. Håndverkerer, studenter og andre sivile borgere var oppdelt i ni kompanier som hver var tildelt en del av vollen. De profesjonelle soldatene var plassert ved utsidene og ved Kastellet og Slotsholmen.

Svenskene utførte først et avledningsangrep ved Christianshavn og Slotsholmen om kvelden den 9. februar. De ble slått tilbake, og i tilbaketoget etterlot svenskene en av sine stormbroer, og københavnerne fikk nå vite at den var 36 fot lang. Dermed visste man også at hvis råkene i isen var litt bredere enn det, så kunne ikke svenske stormbroene nå over.

Da svenskene satte inn angrepet rundt midnatt samme kveld, ble de møtt med hard motstand. Hovedangrepet ble satt inn mot Christianshavn og Vestervold – den nåværende Stormgade har sitt navn herfra – men den opphogde isen og de mange våpnene oppe på vollen hadde enn effektiv virkning mot de tette gruppene med angripende soldater. Likevel kjempet de seg helt opp til vollen, og det kom til regulære nærkamper.

Ved fem-tiden om morgenen gav svenskene opp og trakk seg tilbake. De hadde lidd store tap. Foran vollene fant man 600 lik av soldater som hadde omkommet i direkte kamp, og i tillegg kom alle de som hadde omkommet i vannet og som ikke ble funnet igjen. I tillegg kom også et stort antall sårede.


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    Shooting the Black Powder Shotgun

  • Shooting the Black Powder Shotgun

    Loading muzzleloading or breech-loading shotguns with black powder and shot is not difficult. A prerequisite is that you use lead or bismuth shot, if you don\'t have a modern replica that is approved for the use of steel shot. This article covers the loading of muzzleloading shotguns and shotgun shells.

The Jarmann rifle - Part 2 - Shooting

Category: Black powder cartridge
Published: 12. September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 12. September 2008.
Views: 9561

Jarmann

The 10.15 x 61 cartridge for which the Jarmann rifle was chambered for was also used in numerous civilian firearms, for example, rifles made by Lars Hansen Hagen and Hans Larsen. It was decided as early as 1877 that the calibre should be 10.15 mm, when the joint Norwegian-Swedish gun committee found that this would be the most appropriate military calibre for the future.

Find out more!
You can read more about the use of the Jarmann rifle, as well as other early military repeating black powder rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

Loading 10.15 x 61 cartridges is no hocus-pocus. Brass, bullets and die sets are not common, but not impossible to obtain either. A die set is not necessary if you use a single shot rifle (see the chapter on loading black powder cartridges in the black powder book. In that chapter you also learn how to paper patch bullets).

The loading components

Brass can either be fireformed from .348 Winchester cases or you can buy 10.15 x 61 Jarmann brass from Bertram Brass. .348 Winchester is also often used to form brass for the 12 mm Remington as well, which was the Jarmann rifle's predecessor. Fireformed .348 Winchester brass is a tad shorter compared to original brass, but they do the job as good as anything. The '61' in '10.15 x 61' is the cartridge length in mm by the way. There are also bullet moulds available. Jämttången manufactures Jarmann bullet moulds, and as a joint effort some shooters from this web page have ordered a bullet custom bullet moulds from Lee for the Jarmann. Contact me for more information about this mould. See the bottom of this article for other moulds you can use.

Loading for the 10.15 x 61 Jarmann

Jarmann

10.15 x 61 Jarmann die set
from CH4D.

Die set can be made on special order from RCBS, or the American company 4D. The latter is the most economical, but it is still rather expensive. Today it is priced at $110, but when I bought it was $145, so it is going in the right direction. To the right you can see a picture of my CH4D Jarmann die set. If you are going to use the Jarmann rifle with the repeating mechanism a die set is a necessity to prevent the bullets from separating from the cases inside the magazine.

As you could see in part 1 the original powder charge varied from 68 to 78 grains of black powder. This may be a good starting point. The Jarmann rifle never used grease grooved bullets, but relied on a paper patched lead slug that weighed 337 grains. If you use a paper patched bullet it is important to use some sort of lubrication behind the bullet, for example, a grease cookie. In part 1 you can read the measures that were taken in 1889 to improve the accuracy with the help of extra lubrication.

The first bullets I tried in my Jarmann were swaged bullets from the Norwegian company Parabellum, now called hjemmelading.no. These were sold both lubed and unlubed, and the diameter was 10.30 mm. The lubed bullets had no traditional grease grooves but were knurled to better hold the lube. I used brass from Bertram, and the brass had to be fireformed. I loaded eight cartridges with 70 grains of Wano PP with a bee's wax wad over the powder, a wad of SPG lube on top of that again, then a new bee's wax disc which was placed under one of the greased swaged bullets. At this time I hadn't received my die set, so it was a bit difficult to seat the bullets because of the tight case neck.

Jarmann Jarmann

Paper patched swaged bullet from Parabellum,
the same bullet lubed with SPG bullet lube
and an original steel jacketed bullet to the
right. On the picture to the left you can see
a black powder cartridge with a paper patched
bullet next to an original smokeless cartridge.

The first shots were fired from a bench against the standard UIT 50 metre pistol target at 50 metres (55 yards). I aimed at 6 o'clock and the accuracy was fairly ok. I started with a clean barrel and the first two shots ended up a bit further to the left from where I aimed. The five next shots grouped within an inch, while the last shot was the poorest and ended up to the left of the group. There was some leading with these knurled bullets.

The next thing I tried was the same load and bullet, but the bullet was sized to .401" (10.19 mm) with a Lee lube and size kit. The bullets were paper patched to 10.34 mm, and they were still too large to fit in the case. When this article was written I still waited for my die set which would have been useful in a situation like this because I could have used it to flare the case mouth. Instead I tried an experiment that I didn't believe much in before I started it: I ran the paper patched bullets through the .401" sizer. The sizing went well, but the accuracy was poor (see the picture of the target). I did not recover any of the paper patches, probably because it stuck to the bullet because of the heavy sizing. At best, the accuracy was miserable.

Jarmannpatron Jarmannpatron

The first shots from my Jarmann rifle. On the picture to the right you see a comparison between the first group and a target shot with heavily resized paper patched bullets. In other words, the latter experiment was no great success.

Update

Jarmannblink After this article was written I have tested the rifle some more. The target to the right is shot at 50 metres. Four shots are in the same hole, while a flier down to the right ruins a potentially very good five shot group. Load: 70 grains of Wano PP black powder, paper patched swaged 337 grain bullet sized to .401" before patching, Federal Magnum #215 Large Rifle primer. The wad column consisted of a bee's wax wad on top of the powder, a grease cookie and a milk carton wad.

I have also found several other bullets that may work in a Jarmann. The bullets below are examples of bullets I have tested in 10.15 x 61 Jarmann:

Jarmannkuler

From the left: Lyman 403169, N.E.I. 350 411, N.E.I. 350 411 sized down to .401" (10,19 mm), Clarry Haglund Marmann bullet and paper patched and naked swaged 337 grains bullet from Parabellum.