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29. April 1808

36 år gamle Nikolai Peder Dreyer døde etter sårene han fikk i kampene mot svenskene fire dager tidligere. ... Read more ...

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28. April 1808

Slaget ved Strömstad


29. April 1808

Kaptein Nicolay Peter Dreyer døde
36 år gamle Nikolai Peder Dreyer døde etter sårene han fikk i kampene mot svenskene fire dager tidligere. Under slaget ved Trangen 25. april 1808 førte han som kaptein en del av major Ræders bataljon. Da de norske soldatene i kampen begynte å vike for svenskene, hoppet Dreyer opp på en stubbe, der stod han, skjøt og kommanderte. Ifølge legenden fikk han to mann til å lade geværer for seg, men mens han stod på stubben ble han truffet flere ganger. Denne heroiske innsatsen fikk de norske soldatene til å fatte nytt mot, og de fikk da overtaket. Da han falt sammen ble han liggende på bakken mens han fortsatte å kommandere soldatene sine. Han ble dødelig såret og døde fire dager senere, på denne dag i 1808, på Sønsterud gård.

Dreyer ble født 1772 i Fosnes og var bosatt på Nesjestranda, hvor han leide en gård. Utenfor gården ble det senere reist en bauta til minne om kapteinens heroiske innsats. Han har også fått veiene Kaptein Dreyers vei oppkalt etter seg på Skålahalvøya og i Åsnes, forbi Sønsterud gård.

28. April 1808


Slaget ved Strömstad
Slaget ved Strömstad den 28. april 1808 er en av de siste sjøstrider i historien mellom nordmennene og svenskene. Etter den dansk-norske krigserklæringen den 14. mars 1808 mobiliserte de dansk-norske myndighetene de norske styrkene på tilsammen 36 000 mann, men bare en mindre del var deployert til forsvaret mot Sverige.

Kommandør Lorents Fisker som ved krigsutbruddet var utnevnt som sjef for det norske sjøforsvaret, samlet til seg 30 kanonbåter ved Hvalerøyene for å forsvare sjøvegene mot Østfold. I de første ukene sendte Fisker ut mindre kontingenter som gikk på land flere ganger i nordre Båhuslen, ved et nattlig overfall syd for Svinesund ble 18 svensker tatt til fange uten motstand av løytnant Ager.

Med cirka 24 til 27 kanonbåter, trolig 11 kanonjoller og 13 til 16 kanonsjalupper med en besetning på over 1000 mann og 37 kanonskyts, samt 40 mindre skyts, rekognoserte kommandør Fisker kysttraktene langs nordre Båhuslen. Fisker dro til farvannet utenfor Strömstad den 27. april fordi han fikk rapporter om at svenskene sendte mindre styrker sammen med kanonbåtene til det strategiske viktige havnestedet. Sjøslaget

Om morgenen den 28. april gikk den norske skjærgårdsflåten til angrep på Strömstad for å ødelegge de viktige forrådene der og de svenske kanonbåtene, og fordrive de svenske troppene som bevoktet forrådene. Kaptein Nordberg hadde forutsett dette og opprettet et landbatteri ved Furuholm som bevoktet innløpet til havnestedet. Der er sundet mellom Furuholm og Killingholm omkring 200 meter bredt.

Nordberg kom ut i sjøen med fem kanonsjalupper som rykket fram til midt i innløpet ved Furuholm. De hadde valgt et godt sted for forsvaret av innløpet, og sammen med landbatteriet holdt de stand mot en voldsom stor overlegenhet. I det trange farvannet maktet ikke nordmennene å fortsette mot den sterke ilden, deres overmakten var ikke mulig å bruke i slike forholder.

Etter en og en halv times skarp strid måtte nordmennene trekke seg tilbake med deres skadde kanonbåtene og et tap på 7 drepte og 4 hardt sårede. Svenskenes tap var på 4 døde og 15 sårede.

Rollene ble byttet en måned senere i Slaget ved Hvalerøyene, der 30 svenske kanonbåter ble stoppet og slått tilbake av 6 norske kanonbåter.


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Featured article

    Sharps Model 1874: Part 2 - Shooting

  • Sharps Model 1874: Part 2 - Shooting

    The second part of the Sharps rifle article focuses on the practical use of the rifle. In this article we take a look at the different components that are needed when loading a black powder cartridge for a Sharps rifle: powder, brass, primers, bullets, bullet lube, and wads. As an example a .45-70 Shiloh Sharps is used.

The Jarmann rifle - Part 1 - Background history

Category: Black powder cartridge
Published: 11. September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 12. September 2008.
Views: 11652

Carl Gustaf Jarmann

Norway was one of the first countries in the world, perhaps even the first, which adopted a repeating bolt action rifle for the armed forces. The rifle was invented by the Norwegian engineer Jacob Smith Jarmann, and was adopted in 1884. However, the Jarmann rifle was not the first magazine rifle that had been in use in by the military in Norway. The navy had used the rather clumpy Krag-Petersson rifle since 1876, but with this rifle the shooter had to help with the fingers to manually load a new cartridge in the chamber. The Krag-Petersson rifle used the same rimfire ammunition as the 12 mm Remington rolling block rifle.

Find out more!
You can read more about the Norwegian Jarmann and Krag-Petersson, as well as other early military repeating black powder rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

Jarmann

Jarmann rifle assembled from
original parts.

The Jarmann rifle was originally a single shot rifle, and this weapon was issued to troops for trial purposes as early as 1878. The model designations that are used for the Jarmann rifle may be a bit confusing. The Jarmann rifle with a fixed tubular magazine under the barrel was actually adopted in 1881, but it wasn't until an adoption in 1884 that the formal basis for the rifles model designation was created. The first model is therefore called M/1884. The M/1884 was improved in 1887 with 15 minor changes, and because of this there is a model which is called M/1887. Other minor changes were adopted in 1888, 1889 and 1890.

The Jarmann rifle can be used as both a single shot and repeating rifle. You can switch from single shot to repeating mode, or the other way around, by turning the fire selector on the left side of the barrel 180 degrees forward or backwards. The repeating action works in the following way: A coil spring pushes the cartridges backwards in the tubular magazine. When the bolt is moved backwards the empty cartridge is extracted from the chamber. At the same time the cartridge elevator is lowered and a new cartridge is forced onto the elevator by the coil spring in the magazine. When the bolt is moved forward the elevator lifts the cartridge is lifted by the elevator and when the bolt hits the cartridge base it is pushed into the chamber.

Today the Jarmann rifle is extremely rare despite the fact that about 30 000 of them were made in Norway and 1500 in Sweden. Where they all have disappeared no one seems to have the exact answer, but a large amount was destroyed by the Nazis during the World War II occupation. A great deal was also converted to harpoon guns (rescue guns). The civilian market was not very interested in the Jarmann rifle when the armed forces tried to sell them when they were obsolete. One of the main reasons was that it was hopelessly inferior to the new Krag-Jørgensen rifle.

Jarmann Jarmann

The pictures show the fire selector that allows the shooter to switch between single shot and repeating fire.
On the picture to the left single shot is selected, while on the picture to the right repeating fire is selected.



Jarmann Jarmann Jarmann

The picture series above shows how the repeating mechanism works. When the bolt is moved backwards a new cartridge is forced onto the cartridge elevator by the coil spring in the magazine (picture 1). When the bolt is moved forward the cartridge is lifted by the elevator (picture 2), and the cartridge is inserted into the chamber (picture 3).

The ammunition

The magazine could take eight centre-fire bottleneck cartridges. The ammunition went through several changes:

1878:

The ammunition of 1878 was initially meant for the Jarmann single shot rifle. The lead bullet weighed 21.85 grams (337 grains), and the diameter was 10.03 mm before patching. After patching the diameter was increased to 10.30 mm. The load was 4.46 grams (68.8 grains) of black powder.

The modified cartridge

After the transition from single-shot rifle to repeating rifle it became clear that the muzzle velocity of 474.5 m/s dropped to 465.5 m/s measured 25 alen from the muzzle. It was therefore decided to increase the load to 5 grams (77.1 grams) in 1883 and later to 5.1 grams (78.7 grains) in 1885.

When it was complained that the paper stuck to the bullet and ruined the accuracy extensive ammunition trials were started. The construction committee of 1889 writes that:

'With wads of carton and wax-turpentine wads, in addition to vaseline (petroleum jelly) on the projectile we have during the last trials gotten so good results that the construction committee in accordance with the gun commission's observations suggests that:

1. The wad is to consist of a carton directly on top of the powder, and on top of that a 3.5 to 4.8 mm thick wad consisting of 3 parts wax and 2 parts turpentine.

2. That the projectile is given a coat of melted vaseline grease of which the temperature is not to exceed 85° C. The plane section of the bullet is to be wiped free of grease.

3. It is instituted inquiries of the ammunition of the sort mentioned above after it has been stored a longer period of time, for example, one year.

The commission is aware that the above mentioned suggested wad and grease may not guarantee that the paper in the future will follow the projectile and cause irregularities in the trajectory, but as these irregularities have occurred on distances over 1000 metres, and that our trials seems to show that it these days is not possible to achieve better results, we find it not adequate to perform more trials. Accuracy on the greater distances that suits these days demands is probably only achievable with metal jacketed bullets'

Transition to smokeless powder

Jarmann cartridge Metal jacketed bullets were introduced in 1893 and at that time the black powder load was replaced with a load of smokeless ballistite powder. This increased the muzzle velocity to 490-510 m/s measured 25 metres from the muzzle. This resulted in a flatter trajectory, but the sight settings did not fit the new trajectory. The sight settings were never fixed, probably because the Krag-Jørgensen rifle was on its way to replace the Jarmann rifle. The diameter of the metal jacketed bullet was 10.4 mm.

The picture above (top right) shows an original calibre 10.15 x 61 Jarmann cartridge loaded with ballistite powder and a steel jacketed bullet.

Part two of this article will deal with the practical use of the Jarmann rifle.