Den sør-amerikanske uavhengighetslederen Simón Bolívar gikk inn i Mérida i spissen for invasjonen av Venezuela. Han ble utropt til folkets befrier og inntok Caracas den 6. august. To dager senere erklærte han Venezuelas andre... Read more ...
Simón Bolívar invaderte Venezuela
Den sør-amerikanske uavhengighetslederen Simón Bolívar gikk inn i Mérida i spissen for invasjonen av Venezuela. Han ble utropt til folkets befrier og inntok Caracas den 6. august. To dager senere erklærte han Venezuelas andre republikk.
Etter utallige stridigheter måtte Bolívar flykte og fikk i 1815 beskyttelse på Jamaica. I 1817 vendte han med haitisk hjelp tilbake for å fortsette kampen. I 1819 lyktes han i å befri Venezuela. Deretter marsjerte han over fjellene til Colombia og beseiret spanjolene også der, hvoretter han proklamerte opprettelsen av republikken Gran Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela, Panama og Ecuador), med ham selv som president. Målet var likevel å befri hele Sør-Amerika fra spanjolenes åk.
I 1823 tok Bolívar kommandoen over invasjonen av Peru, og i september kom han til Lima med general Sucre. Den 6. august 1824 beseiret de sammen den spanske hær i slaget ved Junin. Den 9. desember tok Sucre den siste spanske befestning i slaget ved Ayacucho, og det spanske styre i Sør-Amerika var dermed opphørt.
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Today, only the most hardcore enthusiasts use paper patched bullets, but during the childhood of the metallic cartridges in the 1870s and 1880s paper patched bullets were the norm. But what is a paper patched bullet? Read more on how to make and load paper patched bullets and ammunition.
Published: 24. November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 25. November 2007.
Seven Martini-Henry cartridges and a .22 LR cartridge for comparison.
Loading black powder in metallic cartridges seems to be more and more popular here in Norway. The black powder cartridges are for many shooters the gate that leads to a membership in the Norwegian Black powder Union. The following article has its focus on the practical use of the old British infantry rifle, the .577/.450 Martini-Henry.
Find out more!
You can read more about the British Martini-Henry and Snider rifles, as well as other early breech-loading single-shot rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.
My Martini-Henry rifle was bough very cheap at an internet auction not long ago. It is a Mk. IV with the long lever, which means it was probably not used by the British Army, but by some of their native troops in one of the colonies. It was made by the RSAF in Enfield in 1887, which indicates that it was one of the many .402" calibre Enfield-Martini rifles that was later converted to .577/.450 Martini-Henry rifles. The Mk. IV was not being made before 1888, but quite a lot of the Mk. IV's are stamped with both 1886 and 1887 on the right side of the receiver. All of these are converted .402" Enfield-Martinis. I soon discovered markings on my rifle pointing me in the direction of Nepal. On the rear sights I found the markings that revealed were the rifle had been used: N.E.P. and N.S. The latter initials means 'Native Service' and N.E.P. indicates 'Nepal'.
Thousands of Martini-Henry rifles were sold from Britain to Nepal during the last part of the 1800's. Nepal was never a British colony, but came under British influence after 1815. The background for this was that Nepalese Ghurkha soldiers invaded Northern India in 1814 and the British counterattacked with five armies shortly after. Four of the armies were annihilated, but the fifth managed to force themselves into Nepal, marched through the Katmandu Valley which brought them near to the Nepalese capital. The king of Nepal chose to negotiate for peace and shortly after a peace treaty was signed. The British were now allowed to cross Nepal to trade with Tibet. They were also allowed to enlist Ghurkha soldiers for the British Army. After having wiped out four of the five British armies, these soldiers had gained themselves enormous respect. Even today the British Army enlist Ghurkha troops.
Bullets and brass
If you are to shoot your Martini-Henry you have to be ready to do some preparations. You have to get hold of bullets and brass, and that's not the simplest thing in the world. I got brass directly from Bertram Bullets in Australia. They are high quality drawn cases and the cost was 4.40 AUD a piece. You can also get them from the British firm Kynamco.
Home swaged Martini-Henry bullet and bullet for
.45-70 Gvt.To the right: A .577/.450 Martini-Henry
cartridge and a .22 LR cartridge for comparison.
The first shots
Movie Clips (.wmv files)