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29. July 1030

Kong Olav Haraldsson falt i slaget på Stiklestad i Verdal. Han ble ett år etter helgenerklært, og slaget... Read more ...

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28. July 1794

Maximilien de Robespierre ble henrettet


29. July 1030

Olav den Hellige falt på Stiklestad
Kong Olav Haraldsson falt i slaget på Stiklestad i Verdal. Han ble ett år etter helgenerklært, og slaget representerer idag innføringen av kristendommen til Norge. Beretningene om det store slaget dukker ikke opp i sagaene før på 1200-tallet, og ifølge eldre historienedtegnelser ble kongen drept i et langt mindre oppgjør enn det tradisjonen forteller.

Ved Stiklestad trakk bondehæren det lengste strået, og Olav ble omringet av fienden. Snorre forteller at han ble drept av tre sår; Torstein Knarresmed hogg ham med øks i det venstre beinet over kneet, Tore Hund stakk et spyd i magen hans, og han fikk et hogg i halsen på venstre side med sverd. Snorre forteller at han fikk hogget i låret først, og da kastet han fra seg sverdet. Av disse tre sårene døde kongen.

Det blir som regel oppgitt at Kalv Arnesson var den som hogg kongen på venstre side av halsen, men Snorre Sturlasson oppgir selv tvil om dette. Ved Kalv Arnessons side var det en annen ung mann som også het Kalv, sønn av Arnfinn Armodsson. Snorre sier kun at kongen fikk et hogg av en Kalv, og legger til «Folk er ikke enige om hva det var for en Kalv som gav kongen det såret.»



28. July 1794


Maximilien de Robespierre ble henrettet
Den franske revolusjonære og juristen Maximilien de Robespierre ble henrettet på Place de la Révolution sammen med 108 av sine tilhengere. Han var et viktig medlem i Comité de salut public, på norsk ofte oversatt til Velferdskomitéen, som ledet Frankrike under skrekkveldet. Robespierre sto bak omfattende utrenskninger og henrettelser.

Dagen før ble Robespierre avsatt av nasjonalkonventet, hvis medlemmer fryktet ytterligere utrenskninger. Han ble nesten straks befridd ved våpenmakt av sine tilhengere, men ble tatt igjen etter en fortvilt forsvarskamp sammen med sine mest trofaste tilhengere i Hôtel de Ville. Etter noen minutters tumulter var maktkampen over; Robespierre ble skuddskadet i hodet og fakket av konventets tropper.

I hendene på nasjonalkonventet og ute av stand til å snakke av fryktelige smerter, ble han ført uten rettegang til giljotinen den 28. juli, følgende dag, og ble avrettet på Place de la Révolution sammen med 108 av sine tilhengere.

Robespierres fall er en del av den blodige oppløsningen av Thermidorkrisen, en av revolusjonens store vendepunkter. Etter Thermidorkrisen ble skrekkveldet avviklet, blant annet på grunn av at Frankrike ikke lenger var like utsatt for faren for invasjon etter fremganger for de hardhendte tiltak som var blitt satt inn for å motvirke den dype politiske, sosiale og økonomiske krisen i landet. Skrekkveldet begynte å bli til en trussel mot skrekkmennene selv. Derfor så de seg nødt til å gripe inn mot den fremste representanten for regimet, Robespierre.


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    Featured article

      Shooting the Black Powder Shotgun

    • Shooting the Black Powder Shotgun

      Loading muzzleloading or breech-loading shotguns with black powder and shot is not difficult. A prerequisite is that you use lead or bismuth shot, if you don\'t have a modern replica that is approved for the use of steel shot. This article covers the loading of muzzleloading shotguns and shotgun shells.

    Sharps Model 1874: Part 2 - Shooting

    Category: Black powder cartridge
    Published: 4. September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Edited: 14. November 2008.
    Views: 32392

    Shiloh Sharps

    The Sharps rifle was popular among big game hunters, the military and target shooters towards the end of the 1800s. It had a reputation for being reliable, simple, powerful, robust and accurate. There are numerous stories about the accuracy of the Sharps rifle. The best known individual shot is probably Billy Dixon's famous shot pointed against a group of Indians during the battle of Adobe Walls, Texas in 1874. The actual distance between Dixon and the Indian has been debated. The numbers vary from 1538 yards (1406 metres) to 1028 yards (940 metres). The shot was probably fired from a .50 calibre rifle, most likely a .50-90 'Big Fifty'. Dixon later claimed that it was a lucky shot. The Indian was shot from his horse, but wasn't killed. The combined force of Comanche, Kiowa and Cheyenne Indians lifted the siege shortly after and retreated, but whether this was a direct consequence of Dixons shot is not known. However, it is known that the plains Indians had a deep respect for the buffalo hunters and their rifles.

    Find out more!
    You can read more about the Sharps percussion and cartridge rifles, as well as other early breech-loading single-shot rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

    Even though it was a lucky shot, the story about Billy Dixon indicates what a Sharps rifle was capable of in the hands of a skilled marksman.

    Selecting calibre

    Model 1874 Sharps

    Model 1874 Sharps

    Model 1874 Sharps

    Model 1874 Sharps

    The loading process.

    When I ordered my Shiloh Sharps I considered three calibres: .45-70, 45-90 and .45-110. The 45-70 Government cartridge was used by the US Army from 1873 and was the most popular Sharps calibre after 1876. .45-90 was developed for long range target shooting, while .45-110 was the most powerful cartridge ever chambered in an original Sharps Model 1874 rifle. The latter was popular a popular buffalo round.

    My plan was to use the Sharps both for big game hunting and target shooting. .45-90 in my case falls between the cracks: It is not powerful enough to be loaded up to the Norwegian big game energy requirements and it is unnecessary powerful for the 100 metre (109 yards) competitions here in Norway, and I rarely shoot at ranges over 300 metres .45-110 had some of the same challenges: Too powerful for competitive shooting and it would be hard to make the big game energy requirements with black powder. Based on this I selected the .45-70 Gvt. This round is just fine for target shooting at moderate ranges and it meets the energy requirements for at least roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with black powder. Another advantage is that is can be loaded with smokeless powder, which means that it will also meet the big game energy requirements, but unfortunately with the wrong type of powder.

    The rifle from Shiloh arrived in the mail in the spring of 2008, and this article describes the first loads I tested. I'll begin with the components I used for loading the cartridges.

    Brass

    Another advantage with the .45-70 is that it is a popular calibre both among black powder and modern shooters. This means that the selection of available reloading components is good and the prices are low. Brass from Winchester, Remington and Starline are the most common brands here in Norway. The brass varies from brand to brand. The Remington brass has thickest case walls and has therefore less volume compared to the other two brands. Winchester brass is thinnest and has most powder capacity. The Remington cases may be more durable compared to the Winchester brass, but I prefer Winchester because I can get more powder into their cases.

    Before loading the brass it was full length resized, trimmed to 2.1" length, the neck was deburred inside and out, the case neck was annealed and the mouth was flared to .457". Many .45-70 die sets have .454" expander plugs and these are meant for smokeless loadings where copper jacketed .457" bullets are used. The expander plug should be about .002" below the bullet diameter, and most .45-70 shooters use bullets with a diameter of .458" or .459".

    Bullet and bullet mould

    Model 1874 Sharps

    Loading components.

    Model 1874 Sharps

    Reloading tools.

    It may not be an easy task to select the correct .45-70 bullet, because there is a wide range of available moulds. I was recommended to try a bullet mould made by Steve Brooks. He makes moulds for many Shiloh Sharps shooters, and I ordered a .459", 540 grains Paul Jones Creedmoor mould custom made by Brooks. You do not have to go the custom way, because most commercial mould manufacturers make bullet moulds that can be used for the .45-70 loaded with black powder. The Lyman 457125 is a copy of the original .45-70 Government bullet used by the US Army from about 1881, and it will probably work well in most rifles. I selected my bullet based on the rifling twist, rifling depth and area of use. My Shiloh has a bore diameter of .450" and the groove diameter is .458", while the twist is 1:18". With this configuration the 540 grains Creedmoor bullet should do well at least out to 600 metres.

    I have tested three different alloys (pure lead/tin): 30:1, 25:1 and 20:1. I have used bullets cast with the 30:1 alloy with success, but I have to experiment more to see what works best for me.

    The bullets are sized and lubricated in a Lyman Lubrisizer. The sizing die is .459" and the bullets are lubricated with SPG bullet lube.

    It should be mentioned that in the heyday of the Sharps rifles paper patched bullets were the most common projectile used. Paper patching is a science in itself that may prove very accurate, and it is in my opinion more challenging compared to using grease groove bullets. Paper patched bullets will be tried and tested when I get time and inspiration. In some of my other rifles paper patched bullets are superior to grease groove bullets.

    Powder

    We only have two available black powder brands in Norway: Wano and Swiss. Wano P, PP or PPP can all be used, and the same applies to Swiss #3, #4, and #5. Thus far I have only experimented with Swiss #4 (1.5 Fg). This is a powder which is developed for black powder cartridges, and I felt it was natural to start with this brand and granulation.

    I measure the loads with a Lyman No. 55 powder measure designed for black powder, control weigh the charges on a scale, and compress the powder with the vibrations from an electric shaver .

    Primers and wads

    By experimenting with different primers you can actually improve your groups considerably. You can vary between magnum primers and regular primers or pistol primers and rifle primers, as well as different primer brands such as Federal, Winchester, Remington and CCI. In almost all my black powder cartridge rifles I use Federal #215 Large Rifle Magnum Primers, but Federal #155 Large Pistol Magnum Primers have also performed quite well. I always use a newspaper wad between the primer and the powder. A sheet of newspaper is placed between the primer and the base of the case when you prime the case. I don't know whether the newspaper wad improves accuracy, but it has become a habit to use it.

    I also use wads between the powder and the bullet. I have used milk carton wads which are 0.5 mm (.019") thick, but I have also experimented with slightly thicker cardboard wads. Between the bullet and the last wad I always place a newspaper wad to prevent the other wads from sticking to the bullet in flight.

    Sights

    Model 1874 Sharps

    Sharps Vernier sight

    Model 1874 Sharps

    10 shot group.

    During the 1870s and 1880s the original Sharps rifles could be delivered with open sights, tang peep sights or telescopic sights. My rifle is equipped with a semi-buckhorn rear sight, a #108 Sharps Mid Range tang sight made by Montana Vintage Arms with 200 MOA elevation and 28 MOA windage, and a Montana Vintage Arms #113 Sharps low profile front globe with spirit level. The front sight comes with a set of inserts that can be switched. You can select from aperture, post, or crosshairs. I have also invested in a Hadley eye cup that allows me to switch size of the peep holes easily. The buckhorn sight is never used and is more in the way than useful, so I'm considering removing it. I have never seen MVA sights used in Norway, but in my opinion they are good quality and affordable sights.

    Accuracy

    This section is written based on about 150 fired shots. The first test shots were fired at 120 metres (131 yards) against the regular 50 metre UIT pistol target which is used for 100 metre competitions in Norway. I set a baseline with 62 grains of Swiss #4, Winchester brass and the 540 grains Creedmoor bullet cast with a 30:1 alloy. The bullets are sized and lubricated as described above. I experimented with different primers (Federal #215 and #155), wads and varied the charges to +/- one grain.

    I shot 10 shot groups from a rest. The accuracy was acceptable from the first load I tried. It seems like the Shiloh Sharps is fully capable of consistently putting 10 shots in less than 2" at 120 yards quite easily. I used a blow tube between each shot; three long breaths before chambering a new cartridge. The picture to the right shows the best group.

    I also tried a batch of cartridges that was loaded without any wad between the powder and the bullet. This has worked well for me in the 12 mm Remington rolling block ,but in my Sharps rifle these rounds had the poorest accuracy. The reason may be that I wipe between each shot in the Remington, while in the Sharps I use a blow tube.

    So far I have used the Sharps in one competition arranged by my local black powder club. Here we used the rather large 200 metre French military target and the distance was short: about 80 metres (87 yards). I was lucky enough to score 100 points out of 100 possible. The black was large, so I decided to use the crosshair insert in the front globe, which obviously worked well. Below you can see a movie clip from the competition. As you can see we shoot from the prone position without cross-sticks.

    The movie clips shows the seventh shot. The Norwegian dialogue is as follows (I hope you like movies with action, not dialogue!):

    Me: 'You don't have to hold it in. Is it running?'

    Camera man: 'Yes, I think so'.

    Me: ‘Ok’.

    The Shiloh Model 1874 No. 3 Sporter with MVA sights is an excellent rifle, both when it comes to quality and accuracy. In time, the accuracy will improve as I get to experiment more with loads and get used to the rifle. It is costly because of the import and export costs and time-consuming because of the paperwork to import a Shiloh to Norway, but I have not once regretted doing it. Some day I may even get to hunt buffalo with it. Time will show.

    Sources and literature

    Sellers, Frank M.: Sharps Firearms, ISBN: 0960812202
    Venturino, Mike: Shooting Buffalo Rifles of the Old West, MLV Enterprises (2002), ISBN: B000H7NBAM