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30. July 1608

Den franske soldaten, navigatøren og oppdagelsesreisende Samuel de Champlain og hans eksepdisjon møtte en... Read more ...

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29. July 1030

Olav den Hellige falt på Stiklestad


30. July 1608

Samuel de Champlain drepte to irokeserhøvdinger
Den franske soldaten, navigatøren og oppdagelsesreisende Samuel de Champlain og hans eksepdisjon møtte en gruppe irokesere til kamp – sannsynligvis nær Ticonderoga i New York. Indianerstyrken skal ha vært på rundt 200 krigere og da de nærmet seg franskmennene pekte en av guidene hans ut tre av irokeserhøvdingene. de Champlain tok sikte med en arkebus og drepte to av dem med ett skudd, mens en av mennene hans drepte den tredje. Dette førte til at indianerne flyktet. Denne hendelsen satte tonen for det dårlige forholdet mellom irokeserne og franskmennene resten av hundreåret.

Samuel de Champlain hadde også stor innflytelse i åpningen for fransk handel til Nord-Amerika. Det er hans fortjeneste at det finnes fransk-canadiere den dag i dag. Han blir kalt «faren til Ny-Frankrike» fordi han viet sitt liv til å skape et fransk rike i Canada og kalte det Ny-Frankrike.

29. July 1030


Olav den Hellige falt på Stiklestad
Kong Olav Haraldsson falt i slaget på Stiklestad i Verdal. Han ble ett år etter helgenerklært, og slaget representerer idag innføringen av kristendommen til Norge. Beretningene om det store slaget dukker ikke opp i sagaene før på 1200-tallet, og ifølge eldre historienedtegnelser ble kongen drept i et langt mindre oppgjør enn det tradisjonen forteller.

Ved Stiklestad trakk bondehæren det lengste strået, og Olav ble omringet av fienden. Snorre forteller at han ble drept av tre sår; Torstein Knarresmed hogg ham med øks i det venstre beinet over kneet, Tore Hund stakk et spyd i magen hans, og han fikk et hogg i halsen på venstre side med sverd. Snorre forteller at han fikk hogget i låret først, og da kastet han fra seg sverdet. Av disse tre sårene døde kongen.

Det blir som regel oppgitt at Kalv Arnesson var den som hogg kongen på venstre side av halsen, men Snorre Sturlasson oppgir selv tvil om dette. Ved Kalv Arnessons side var det en annen ung mann som også het Kalv, sønn av Arnfinn Armodsson. Snorre sier kun at kongen fikk et hogg av en Kalv, og legger til «Folk er ikke enige om hva det var for en Kalv som gav kongen det såret.»




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    Portrait of an original Remington percussion revolver

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    June, 1863: As the American Civil War raged on, a newly made percussion revolver passed the gates of the E. Remington & Sons factory in the small city of Ilion, New York. Exactly 150 years after the old veteran became mine. Now it was time to bring it back to life.

The Model 1860 Kammerlader Rifle

Category: Norwegian kammerlader
Published: 18. September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Views: 12807

Kammerlader

Model 1860 Army kammerlader, converted to metallic cartridge after Lund's system some time after 1867.

The 18 bore kammerlader rifles were continuously improved from the time the first model was adopted in 1842. In 1860 a new model was adopted. This model had several radical changes: The most important being the reduction of the calibre from 18 bore to 4''' (linjer, an old Norwegian measuring unit). Since roundballs were no longer used it served no purpose to designate the calibre in bullets per pound. 4''' equals 11.77 mm, and compared to the 18 bore rifles the calibre was reduced with 5 mm. The internals of the barrel were also changed. While the 18 bore kammerlader rifles had Krupp rifling the Model 1860 had hexagonal Whithworth rilfing. Another new feature was rifled chambers. The 4''' kammerlader is a lighter and slender firearm compared to the old models.

Both civilian and military 4''' kammerlader rifles. Civilian kammerlader rifles for the shooting societies were made from parts that were intended for the military rifles. The shooting society kammerlader rifles are distinguished by the steel buttplate and barrel bands. The Army versions had brass bands and buttplate.

Find out more!
You can learn more about the kammerlader rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

Kammerlader

Model 1860/67 Naval kammerlader
Landmark conversion.

The new kammerlader rifles had a short active service, and were soon converted to fire metallic cartridges. When the metallic cartridge was adopted along with the Remington rolling block rifle in 1867, most of the Model 1860 kammerlader rifles were converted to the new calibre. Two conversion systems were used. The Army used the system of Jacob Lund and the Navy relied on the system of Jens Landmark. The conversions are called Lund's rifles and Landmark's rifles. The new calibre was decided to be 12.17 mm, and the new cartridge got the official designation '12 mm Remington' (also known as 12.17x44, 12x42, 12.17x42, 12.7x44 and similar). You can read more about this cartridge in the article about the Remington rolling block.

Models

The following 4''' models are known:

  • M/1860 4''' Army three bander (long)
  • M/1860 4''' Army two bander (short)
  • M/1860 4''' three bander (long) for shooting societies
  • M/1860 4''' two bander (short) for shooting societies
  • M/1860 4''' Navy two bander
  • M/1862 4''' artillery carbine
  • M/1865 4''' cavalry carbine

Kammerlader

Model 1860/67 Army kammerlader
Lund's conversion. Notice the
rimfire breech block.

Today it is extremely rare to find an unconverted 4''' kammerlader rifle. If you find one, it is probably one of the shooting society models. The 4''' kammerlader rifles were very accurate in it time, and they performed very well in a comparativ shooting competition in Belgium in 1861.

Bayonets

The short Model 1860 kammerlader rifles were equipped with yataghan style sabre bayonets similar to that of the Remington rifle. It was also basically similar to the 18 bore short rifle bayonet. The long rifles was fitted with a socket bayonet.