Forum

Market


On this day

30. August 1813

Creek-indianerne gikk til angrep på Fort Mims i Alabama og drepte rundt 500 militssoldater og sivile.... Read more ...

Yesterday

29. August 1807

Slaget ved Køge


30. August 1813

Fort Mims-massakren
Creek-indianerne gikk til angrep på Fort Mims i Alabama og drepte rundt 500 militssoldater og sivile. Indianerne tilhørte «Red Sticks»-fraksjonen i creek-stammen – det vil si de som var kritisk til de hvite. De ble ledet av halvblods-creekene Peter McQueen og William Weatherford – også kalt Lamochattee (Røde Ørn).

Indianerne stormet fortet gjennom portene og beseiret garnisonsmilitsen. Etterpå utspilte det seg en massakre der de resterende vennligsinnede creek-indianerne, hvite nybyggere og resten av militssoldatene ble drept. Noen slaver ble også drept, men indianerne tok rundt 100 slaver til fange.

Massakren i Fort Mims førte til at panikken bredte seg i grenselandet i det sørøstlige USA. Konflikten gikk nå fra å være en intern strid innad i creek-stammen til en krig mellom Red Sticks-fraksjonen og de hvite som ble støttet av vennligsinnede creek- og cherokee-indianere. Hæren var opptatt i krigen mot britene, men det ble opprettet militser i Tennessee, Georgia og Mississippi som under ledelse av general Andrew Jackson til slutt nedkjempet de fiendtligsinnede creek-indianerne i slaget ved Horseshoe Bend.

29. August 1807


Slaget ved Køge
Slaget ved Køge var et slag mellom danske militssoldater og britiske hærstyrker som beleiret København. Slaget endte med en overlegen britisk seier.

Danmark-Norge forsøkte å holde seg nøytralt under Napoleonskrigene, men Storbritannia fryktet at den store dansk-norske flåten skulle komme under fransk kontroll og fremsatte derfor et ultimatum overfor den dansk-norske regjering: Enten måtte orlogsflåten utleveres som pant til Storbritannia eller så ville britene angripe og ta flåten med makt. Da kravet ble avvist gikk britiske tropper i land ved Vedbæk den 16. august 1807 og innledet beleiringen av København.

Generalløytnant Castenschiold ble beordret til å opprette et «frikorps» og unnsette hovedstaden. Castenschiolds styrker ble konsentrert omkring Roskilde og Lejre, mens general Oxholm ble sendt sydpå for å aktivere det Søndre Sjællandske Landeværnsregiment. Castenschiold forflyttet seg til Køge den 26. august, og den 28. august ankom Oxholm med sine styrker. I alt rådet Castenschiold over rundt 7 000 militssoldater, 600 ryttere og 13 kanoner.

Det britiske hovedkvarteret ved København kjente til landværnets mobilisering og beordret den 27. august general Arthur Wellesley (senere 1. hertug av Wellington) å finne og nedkjempe det danske landværnet. De britiske soldatene var overlegent trent og nedkjempet og jaget de danske styrkene på flukt. Slaget ved Køge blir ellers ofte kalt «treskoslaget» da de dårlig trente og slett utrustede danske bøndene kastet treskoene under flukten fra de disiplinerte og godt utrustede britiske soldatene.


Chat

Offline

No chatting right now.

    (You must be logged in to the Norwegian forum to chat.)


    Featured article

      Some Thoughts About Selecting Barrels

    • Some Thoughts About Selecting Barrels

      If you are thinking of purchasing a black powder rifle or pistol it may be smart to decide what you are going to use the weapon for before you buy it. Do you want to shoot patched roundballs or minié balls? Or perhaps both? This article provides you with some advice on what to choose.

    The Norwegian Kammerlader

    Category: Norwegian kammerlader
    Published: 24. November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Edited: 25. November 2007.
    Views: 29826

    Kammerlader

    18 bore kammerlader with open chamber.

    The first Norwegian breech-loader was the 18 bore (.69 cal.) Chamber-loading Rifle (Kammerladningsgever), adopted in 1842. The Model 1842 was succeeded by several models, each with more or less minor changescompared to the original model. The most extensive change was made in 1860 when the calibre was reduced to 11.77mm (.46 cal.). The breech-block, containing the chamber, was pivoted at the rear; a side lever, mounted on an eccentric cam, opened the action and provided an effectual breech-seal when the action was shut. An under-hammer cap lock originally lay ahead of the trigger guard. After the Norwegian army had adopted the Remington Rolling Block, in 1867, many old chamber-loaders were altered to fire the same rim fire cartridge. Conversions were known as Landmark's and Lund's. The Navy adopted the Landmark, which was slower to load compared to the Lund's that the Army adopted. The new calibre was 12,17mm (.48 cal.) and the cartridge was named 12,17x44R. It was built on the US 50-70 cartridge, but it is not quite as powerful.

    Click here to see my drawings of how the first models were loaded with the paper cartridge.

    Find out more!
    You can read more about the Norwegian chamber-loading 'kammerlader' rifles and other capping breech-loading rifles and carbines, as well as needle guns such as the Dreyse and Chassepot in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

    Some counterfactual thoughts

    Kammerlader As the chamber-loading rifles never saw any combat in its service timeframe, we actually have to imagine what had happened if it was used in the hands of soldiers in a war. If we look to other nations and their armies, Norway was far ahead of most others. One exception is Prussia which adopted von Dreyse’s 15.4 mm (.60”) needle-gun in 1841. The needle-gun, or Zündnadelgewehr as it was called in Prussia, fired a self-contained cartridge, while the chamber-loader had to be loaded with paper cartridge and loose caps. However, the needle-gun had its limitations.

    In the rest of the world the muzzleloader was still extensively used. At the outbreak of the American Civil War 19 years after the adoption of the chamber-loader Norway had already improved their first chamber-loader and reduced the calibre. The Civil War was largely fought with muzzleloading rifle muskets. Would the outcome of the war have been different if one or both of the opposing parties had been armed with the Norwegian chamber-loader? Probably not. First of all, the Civil War was largely fought with outdated battle tactics from the time of the smoothbore musket. Secondly, the troops lacked marksman training.

    However, an army that was trained both with the kammerlader rifle and more appropriate battle tactics would probably have had some impact in the wars that were fought with muzzleloaders. One example is the battle of Königsgrätz in 1866 when Bismarck's Prussians armed with von Dreyse's needle-guns completely overrand the Austrians that were armed with muzzleloaders.

    Accuracy

    Kammerlader

    Shooting an M/1855.

    During an military competition in Belgium in 1861, 47 target shooting guns were tested. Norway had two guns in the competition, a 3-band and a 2-band model 1860 chamber loading target shooting rifle. The distance they were shot began at 50 yds, and then increased to 100, 150, 225 and 300 yds, and from 300 yds each 100 yds. out to 1100 yds. As the distance increased, more and more guns fell out of the competition. At the end the two Norwegian guns were left, along with seven foreign ones. The tests in Belgium showed that the model 1860 there was among the most accurate weapons in Europe in its time.

    Bullets

    It can be a bit difficult to get hold of a proper bullet mould for a kammerlader. I have made my own drawings and made a bullet mould that casts a replica of the Model 1855 bullet.

    Kammerlader Kammerlader

    To the left: Paper cartridges. To the right: Bullets cast from a custom mould.

    Kammerlader Kammerlader

    To the left: A good group shot with a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader. Right: Shooting a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader.