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28. September 1874

Slaget ved Palo Duro Canyon mellom den amerikanske hæren og en allianse av indianere fra kwahadi... Read more ...

Yesterday

27. September 1605

Knusende svensk nederlag ved Kirchholm


28. September 1874

Slaget ved Palo Duro Canyon
Slaget ved Palo Duro Canyon mellom den amerikanske hæren og en allianse av indianere fra kwahadi comanche-, kiowa-, cheyenne- og arapaho-stammene gjorde en slutt på Red River-krigen. Indianerne under kiowahøvdingen Lone Wolf (Ensomme ulv) hadde flyktet fra reservatet sent på sommeren samme år, og oberst Ranald S. Mackenzie og 4. kavaleriregiment tok opp forfølgelsen.

Ved Palo Duro Canyon i Texas Panhandle gikk soldatene overraskende til angrep. Selv om relativt få indianere ble drept, så tok Mackenzie hele indianernes vinterforråd og 1500–2000 indianerponnier som ble slaktet ned på stedet. Alle tipiene ble brent.

Tapet av ponniene og vinterforrådet gjorde at indianerne ikke kunne overleve på prærien og mange returnerte til reservatet ved Fort Sill innen november 1874. Lone Wolf (bildet) overga seg ikke før i februar 1875. Han ble senere deportert til Florida hvor han pådro seg malaria. Han døde i 1879.

27. September 1605


Knusende svensk nederlag ved Kirchholm
Polen-Litauen og svenske styrker møttes ved Kirchholm, i dag kjent som Salaspils, i Latvia under den polsk-svenske krigen i 1600–1611. Slaget endte med en knusende polsk-litauisk seier. Svenskene tapte mellom 7600 og 8000 mann, mens de polske og litauiske styrkene kun hadde 100 drepte og 200 sårede.

Etter slaget ble den svenske kongen tvunget til å oppgi beleiringen av Riga og måtte trekke seg tilbake over det baltiske hav til Sverige.


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    Featured article

    The Norwegian Kammerlader

    Category: Norwegian kammerlader
    Published: 24. November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Edited: 25. November 2007.
    Views: 30144

    Kammerlader

    18 bore kammerlader with open chamber.

    The first Norwegian breech-loader was the 18 bore (.69 cal.) Chamber-loading Rifle (Kammerladningsgever), adopted in 1842. The Model 1842 was succeeded by several models, each with more or less minor changescompared to the original model. The most extensive change was made in 1860 when the calibre was reduced to 11.77mm (.46 cal.). The breech-block, containing the chamber, was pivoted at the rear; a side lever, mounted on an eccentric cam, opened the action and provided an effectual breech-seal when the action was shut. An under-hammer cap lock originally lay ahead of the trigger guard. After the Norwegian army had adopted the Remington Rolling Block, in 1867, many old chamber-loaders were altered to fire the same rim fire cartridge. Conversions were known as Landmark's and Lund's. The Navy adopted the Landmark, which was slower to load compared to the Lund's that the Army adopted. The new calibre was 12,17mm (.48 cal.) and the cartridge was named 12,17x44R. It was built on the US 50-70 cartridge, but it is not quite as powerful.

    Click here to see my drawings of how the first models were loaded with the paper cartridge.

    Find out more!
    You can read more about the Norwegian chamber-loading 'kammerlader' rifles and other capping breech-loading rifles and carbines, as well as needle guns such as the Dreyse and Chassepot in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

    Some counterfactual thoughts

    Kammerlader As the chamber-loading rifles never saw any combat in its service timeframe, we actually have to imagine what had happened if it was used in the hands of soldiers in a war. If we look to other nations and their armies, Norway was far ahead of most others. One exception is Prussia which adopted von Dreyse’s 15.4 mm (.60”) needle-gun in 1841. The needle-gun, or Zündnadelgewehr as it was called in Prussia, fired a self-contained cartridge, while the chamber-loader had to be loaded with paper cartridge and loose caps. However, the needle-gun had its limitations.

    In the rest of the world the muzzleloader was still extensively used. At the outbreak of the American Civil War 19 years after the adoption of the chamber-loader Norway had already improved their first chamber-loader and reduced the calibre. The Civil War was largely fought with muzzleloading rifle muskets. Would the outcome of the war have been different if one or both of the opposing parties had been armed with the Norwegian chamber-loader? Probably not. First of all, the Civil War was largely fought with outdated battle tactics from the time of the smoothbore musket. Secondly, the troops lacked marksman training.

    However, an army that was trained both with the kammerlader rifle and more appropriate battle tactics would probably have had some impact in the wars that were fought with muzzleloaders. One example is the battle of Königsgrätz in 1866 when Bismarck's Prussians armed with von Dreyse's needle-guns completely overrand the Austrians that were armed with muzzleloaders.

    Accuracy

    Kammerlader

    Shooting an M/1855.

    During an military competition in Belgium in 1861, 47 target shooting guns were tested. Norway had two guns in the competition, a 3-band and a 2-band model 1860 chamber loading target shooting rifle. The distance they were shot began at 50 yds, and then increased to 100, 150, 225 and 300 yds, and from 300 yds each 100 yds. out to 1100 yds. As the distance increased, more and more guns fell out of the competition. At the end the two Norwegian guns were left, along with seven foreign ones. The tests in Belgium showed that the model 1860 there was among the most accurate weapons in Europe in its time.

    Bullets

    It can be a bit difficult to get hold of a proper bullet mould for a kammerlader. I have made my own drawings and made a bullet mould that casts a replica of the Model 1855 bullet.

    Kammerlader Kammerlader

    To the left: Paper cartridges. To the right: Bullets cast from a custom mould.

    Kammerlader Kammerlader

    To the left: A good group shot with a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader. Right: Shooting a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader.