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11. February 1659

Svenske soldater stormet København under Karl 10. Gustavs andre danske krig. Svenskene hadde omringet... Read more ...

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10. February 1763

Paristraktaten gjorde slutt på syvårskrigen


11. February 1659

Stormingen av København
Svenske soldater stormet København under Karl 10. Gustavs andre danske krig. Svenskene hadde omringet København, og etter at københavnerne hadde stått imot omtrent et halvt år med blokade, bombardementer og angrep, forsøkte svenskene å innta byen ved et storstilt stormangrep. Københavnerne var via spioner blitt advart om angrepet, og var forberedt med våpen og forsvarsplaner.

Det var oppstilt rundt 300 kanoner, mortere og annet artilleri på vollene i København, og utover det var der fordelt og oppstilt våpen av enhver art alt fra musketter og luntebørser til morgenstjerner, ljåer, kokende vann og tjære. Håndverkerer, studenter og andre sivile borgere var oppdelt i ni kompanier som hver var tildelt en del av vollen. De profesjonelle soldatene var plassert ved utsidene og ved Kastellet og Slotsholmen.

Svenskene utførte først et avledningsangrep ved Christianshavn og Slotsholmen om kvelden den 9. februar. De ble slått tilbake, og i tilbaketoget etterlot svenskene en av sine stormbroer, og københavnerne fikk nå vite at den var 36 fot lang. Dermed visste man også at hvis råkene i isen var litt bredere enn det, så kunne ikke svenske stormbroene nå over.

Da svenskene satte inn angrepet rundt midnatt samme kveld, ble de møtt med hard motstand. Hovedangrepet ble satt inn mot Christianshavn og Vestervold – den nåværende Stormgade har sitt navn herfra – men den opphogde isen og de mange våpnene oppe på vollen hadde enn effektiv virkning mot de tette gruppene med angripende soldater. Likevel kjempet de seg helt opp til vollen, og det kom til regulære nærkamper.

Ved fem-tiden om morgenen gav svenskene opp og trakk seg tilbake. De hadde lidd store tap. Foran vollene fant man 600 lik av soldater som hadde omkommet i direkte kamp, og i tillegg kom alle de som hadde omkommet i vannet og som ikke ble funnet igjen. I tillegg kom også et stort antall sårede.

10. February 1763


Paristraktaten gjorde slutt på syvårskrigen
Storbritannia, Frankrike og Spania skrev under Paristraktaten som gjorde slutt på syvårskrigen. Avtalen markerte begynnelsen på en lang periode med britisk dominans utenfor Europa.

Syvårskrigen ble utkjempet i perioden 1756–1763 mellom Storbritannia, Preussen og Hannover på den ene siden og Frankrike, Østerrike, Russland, Sverige og Sachsen på den andre. Spania og Portugal ble trukket inn i konflikten etter de andre landene, mens en styrke fra det nøytrale Nederland ble angrepet i India.

Den militære konflikten mellom Storbritannia og Frankrike hadde startet allerede to år tidligere, i 1754, i de to landenes nord-amerikanske kolonier. Krigen i Nord-Amerika, kjent som Den franske og indianske krig, ettersom mange av indianerne sluttet seg til franskmennene, forløp fra 1756 av parallelt med sjuårskrigen i Europa, og ble betraktet som dennes nord-amerikanske avsnitt.


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Featured article

    Making paper cartridges

  • Making paper cartridges

    During the heyday of the percussion revolver soldiers almost exclusively loaded their revolvers with paper cartridges. This article gives you a short historical background of the use of paper cartridges, shows you how to make your own and finally how to shoot them.

18 Bore Kammerlader Bullets

Category: Norwegian kammerlader
Published: 15. October 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 15. November 2008.
Views: 11893

Many Norwegian black powder shooters have an old kammerlader lying around. If it is in good condition you can shoot it, but it may prove difficult to obtain proper bullets.

Kammerladerkuler

Original paper cartridge Model 1861.

To begin with from 1842 the common soldier used roundballs in the kammerlader. The ball ammunition was manufactured so that it could be loaded in all of the most common European military arms at that time. Smart, if Norway should end up in a war with another European country. Experiences from the war from 1807 to 1814 when the supply situation was precarious were probably taken into account. Our Swedish opponents had 20 mm calibre as standard up until 1811, and the ammunition that was captured from the Swedes could not be used in the smaller calibre Norwegian-Danish muskets. In the kammerlader it was possible to use ammunition made for the English .75 calibre Brown Bess muskets and most other European musket ammunition.

Find out more!
You can learn more about the Norwegian kammerlader rifles and their ammunition in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

Kammerladerkuler

Replica paper cartridges and bullets.

Some sources claim that the roundballs used was 16 bore (17.5 mm). Harald Sunde mentions in his book 'Norske kammerladningsgeværer og karabiner for Hæren 1842-1877' that the roundballs weighed 2.4 lod or 37.34 grams (574 grains). Since this was pure lead balls it should indicate a diameter of about 18.3 mm (.72"). The following is just a guess, but I believe that the diameter of the roundballs may have been bigger compared to the diameter of the conical balls which were between 17.25 - 17.5 mm. The rifling diameter is nominal 17.84 mm, and it seems a bit unlikely that a roundball should be that much undersize compared to the rifling diameter in a breech-loader. It was relatively common during the black powder era for breech-loaders to be loaded with undersize conical bullets, but the conicals obdurate into the rifling by the exploding powder gases. This obduration does most likely not happen with roundballs. However, it is known that the rifling of the kammerlader rifles was cut deep to collect the powder fouling. The diameter of the breech-block is nominal 18.71 mm.

The original conical bullets

Kammerladerkuler

Conical bullet and cartridge used
by sharpshooters from 1849-1855.

There were two types of conical bullets for the 18 bore Norwegian kammerlader. The first model was used by selected sharpshooters from 1849 to 1855. This was a very heavy bullet that weighed 54.5 grams (838 grains), and it had one groove. New conical bullets trials were initiated in 1852, and it was found that it was more practical with a lighter bullet. The new bullet was based on Tamisier's projectile which was modified for use in the kammerlader. The weight of the new bullet was 40.4 grams (623.5 grains) and it had two grooves. In 1855 it was decided that this bullet should be used in all kammerlader ammunition.

You can ask yourself why a bullet that was supposed to be paper patched had grooves, unlike, for example, the smooth sided British paper patched Pritchett bullet that was used in the .577 Enfield muskets. The idea behind the grooves was not that they should be used as lubrication grooves, or grooves for scraping out powder fouling. A woollen thread was used to secure the patching paper to the bullet, but the thread was not tied in the grooves. Instead the thread was tied once in front of the nose and then behind the bullet. A lubricated thread in the grooves would probably have provided better lubrication than just the lubricated paper, but that's easy for us to say that can lean on 150 years of experience with the kammerlader. The explanation is probably that the grooves, or 'air grooves' as they were called, were supposed to move the weight of the bullet forward. By removing a lead by making the grooves it was tried to stabilise the bullet more in addition to the rotation stabilisation.

Kammerladerkuler Kammerladerkuler

To the left: Copy of the sharpshooter bullet from 1849, and to the right
an original bullet of the type that was used from 1855.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The kammerlader bullets today

Kammerladerkuler

Drawing of the
Model 1855 bullet.

Understandably, there are no commercial bullet mould manufacturers that makes bullet moulds for the 18 bore kammerlader, but there are exceptions. Sture Schølin in Bodø, Norway is one of them. He makes an 18 bore mould that I bought a couple of years ago. His bullet has an extra belt in front of the front groove which the original bullets don't have. Except for some other minor differences, the bullet is pretty similar to the original bullet. A disadvantage is that the mould is expensive and rather poorly made. The mould costs 1110,- NOK ($194 or EUR 133) See his web site at: http://www.vapenmek.no/produkter/stopetang.htm or call +47 75 51 83 22.

I copied an original Model 1855 bullet and sent drawings to both Lee Presicion and NEI Handtools which both made moulds for me. The Lee moulds are of course made of aluminum, while the NEI moulds are manufactured in meehanite, which NEI describe as 'a very dense, free machining cast iron alloy'. I have had good results with these bullets, and there are about 50 of these moulds in circulation among Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch and American kammerlader shooters.