Forum

Market


On this day

31. May 1862

Slaget ved Fair Oaks Station (også kalt Seven Pines) begynte. Slaget var en del av den amerikanske... Read more ...

Yesterday

30. May 1816

Jacob Smith Jarmann ble født


31. May 1862

Slaget ved Fair Oaks Station
Slaget ved Fair Oaks Station (også kalt Seven Pines) begynte. Slaget var en del av den amerikanske borgerkrigen og har senere blitt brukt som et eksempel på dårlig taktisk bruk av den nye riflemusketten – særlig hendelsen da det 104. Pennsylvania infanteriregiment forsvarte seg mot en angripende sørstatsstyrke. Avstanden mellom de stridene partene var flere hundre meter. Rebellene var bevæpnet med gammeldagse glattløpede perkusjonsmusketter. Yankeene fra nord var oppsatt med østerrikske Lorenz riflemusketter i kaliber .54. Riflene til unionshæren var godt i gang med å skyte sørstatshæren sønder og sammen da general Silas Casey beordret nordstatstroppene sine fra det 104. Pennsylvania til å gå til motangrep. Da partene var 50 meter fra hverandre åpnet de gråkledte sørstatstroppene en drepende ild med muskettene sine ladet med «buck and ball» (en stor kule sammen med tre mindre buckshot).

Resultatet var at det 104. Pennsylvania ble drevet på defensiven og jaget fra slagmarken etter kort tid. Hadde de fortsatt å bruke riflemuskettene på en lengre avstand hadde trolig general Casey kommet fra det med æren i behold. Denne episoden var langt fra enestående. Det finnes mange eksempler på slag og trefninger der riflemusketten rett og slett ble disponert på en uklok måte.

30. May 1816


Jacob Smith Jarmann ble født
Jacob Smith Jarmann ble født i Nord-Fron i Gudbrandsdalen. Jarmann er best kjent som konstruktør av Jarmann-geværet. Opprinnelig tenkte han å slå inn på en militær løpebane og gikk opp til offiserseksamen i 1840, men fikk imidlertid så dårlig karakter i tysk at han oppgav dette.

Omkring 1838 skal Jarmann ha konstruert et enkeltskudd bakladningsgevær for enhetspatroner i papp, som på tross av rosende omtale aldri ble innført i armeen, fordi det hadde en skuddhastighet på 13 skudd i minuttet og dermed et for den tid enormt ammunisjonsbehov. Dette gjorde at Jarmann la geværkonstruksjonene bort en periode.

Jarmann anla i 1854 Nylands Verksted og ledet det til 1878. Verkstedet bygde dampskip og maskiner til teknisk bruk. Men direktør Jarmann arbeidet i ledige stunder også med geværkonstruksjoner. 1870 hadde han ferdig en enkeltlader, forløperen til et 10,15 mm repetergevær med 8 patroner i et langsgående rørmagasin i skjeftet. Dette geværet ble etter mange inngående prøver med datidens beste europeiske og amerikanske geværmodeller antatt som armégevær i Norge ved kgl. resolusjon av 28. mars 1881. Jarmann fikk 24 000 kroner for arbeidet, og hans navn ble kjent over hele landet og ikke minst i utlandet. For sine geværkonstruksjoner ble Jarmann dessuten utnevnt til ridder av St. Olavs Orden 1881 og av den svenske Vasaorden.


Chat

Offline

No chatting right now.

    (You must be logged in to the Norwegian forum to chat.)


    Featured article

      Shooting the Black Powder Shotgun

    • Shooting the Black Powder Shotgun

      Loading muzzleloading or breech-loading shotguns with black powder and shot is not difficult. A prerequisite is that you use lead or bismuth shot, if you don\'t have a modern replica that is approved for the use of steel shot. This article covers the loading of muzzleloading shotguns and shotgun shells.

    18 Bore Kammerlader Bullets

    Category: Norwegian kammerlader
    Published: 15. October 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Edited: 15. November 2008.
    Views: 12417

    Many Norwegian black powder shooters have an old kammerlader lying around. If it is in good condition you can shoot it, but it may prove difficult to obtain proper bullets.

    Kammerladerkuler

    Original paper cartridge Model 1861.

    To begin with from 1842 the common soldier used roundballs in the kammerlader. The ball ammunition was manufactured so that it could be loaded in all of the most common European military arms at that time. Smart, if Norway should end up in a war with another European country. Experiences from the war from 1807 to 1814 when the supply situation was precarious were probably taken into account. Our Swedish opponents had 20 mm calibre as standard up until 1811, and the ammunition that was captured from the Swedes could not be used in the smaller calibre Norwegian-Danish muskets. In the kammerlader it was possible to use ammunition made for the English .75 calibre Brown Bess muskets and most other European musket ammunition.

    Find out more!
    You can learn more about the Norwegian kammerlader rifles and their ammunition in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

    Kammerladerkuler

    Replica paper cartridges and bullets.

    Some sources claim that the roundballs used was 16 bore (17.5 mm). Harald Sunde mentions in his book 'Norske kammerladningsgeværer og karabiner for Hæren 1842-1877' that the roundballs weighed 2.4 lod or 37.34 grams (574 grains). Since this was pure lead balls it should indicate a diameter of about 18.3 mm (.72"). The following is just a guess, but I believe that the diameter of the roundballs may have been bigger compared to the diameter of the conical balls which were between 17.25 - 17.5 mm. The rifling diameter is nominal 17.84 mm, and it seems a bit unlikely that a roundball should be that much undersize compared to the rifling diameter in a breech-loader. It was relatively common during the black powder era for breech-loaders to be loaded with undersize conical bullets, but the conicals obdurate into the rifling by the exploding powder gases. This obduration does most likely not happen with roundballs. However, it is known that the rifling of the kammerlader rifles was cut deep to collect the powder fouling. The diameter of the breech-block is nominal 18.71 mm.

    The original conical bullets

    Kammerladerkuler

    Conical bullet and cartridge used
    by sharpshooters from 1849-1855.

    There were two types of conical bullets for the 18 bore Norwegian kammerlader. The first model was used by selected sharpshooters from 1849 to 1855. This was a very heavy bullet that weighed 54.5 grams (838 grains), and it had one groove. New conical bullets trials were initiated in 1852, and it was found that it was more practical with a lighter bullet. The new bullet was based on Tamisier's projectile which was modified for use in the kammerlader. The weight of the new bullet was 40.4 grams (623.5 grains) and it had two grooves. In 1855 it was decided that this bullet should be used in all kammerlader ammunition.

    You can ask yourself why a bullet that was supposed to be paper patched had grooves, unlike, for example, the smooth sided British paper patched Pritchett bullet that was used in the .577 Enfield muskets. The idea behind the grooves was not that they should be used as lubrication grooves, or grooves for scraping out powder fouling. A woollen thread was used to secure the patching paper to the bullet, but the thread was not tied in the grooves. Instead the thread was tied once in front of the nose and then behind the bullet. A lubricated thread in the grooves would probably have provided better lubrication than just the lubricated paper, but that's easy for us to say that can lean on 150 years of experience with the kammerlader. The explanation is probably that the grooves, or 'air grooves' as they were called, were supposed to move the weight of the bullet forward. By removing a lead by making the grooves it was tried to stabilise the bullet more in addition to the rotation stabilisation.

    Kammerladerkuler Kammerladerkuler

    To the left: Copy of the sharpshooter bullet from 1849, and to the right
    an original bullet of the type that was used from 1855.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The kammerlader bullets today

    Kammerladerkuler

    Drawing of the
    Model 1855 bullet.

    Understandably, there are no commercial bullet mould manufacturers that makes bullet moulds for the 18 bore kammerlader, but there are exceptions. Sture Schølin in Bodø, Norway is one of them. He makes an 18 bore mould that I bought a couple of years ago. His bullet has an extra belt in front of the front groove which the original bullets don't have. Except for some other minor differences, the bullet is pretty similar to the original bullet. A disadvantage is that the mould is expensive and rather poorly made. The mould costs 1110,- NOK ($194 or EUR 133) See his web site at: http://www.vapenmek.no/produkter/stopetang.htm or call +47 75 51 83 22.

    I copied an original Model 1855 bullet and sent drawings to both Lee Presicion and NEI Handtools which both made moulds for me. The Lee moulds are of course made of aluminum, while the NEI moulds are manufactured in meehanite, which NEI describe as 'a very dense, free machining cast iron alloy'. I have had good results with these bullets, and there are about 50 of these moulds in circulation among Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch and American kammerlader shooters.