Den sør-amerikanske uavhengighetslederen Simón Bolívar gikk inn i Mérida i spissen for invasjonen av Venezuela. Han ble utropt til folkets befrier og inntok Caracas den 6. august. To dager senere erklærte han Venezuelas andre... Read more ...
Simón Bolívar invaderte Venezuela
Den sør-amerikanske uavhengighetslederen Simón Bolívar gikk inn i Mérida i spissen for invasjonen av Venezuela. Han ble utropt til folkets befrier og inntok Caracas den 6. august. To dager senere erklærte han Venezuelas andre republikk.
Etter utallige stridigheter måtte Bolívar flykte og fikk i 1815 beskyttelse på Jamaica. I 1817 vendte han med haitisk hjelp tilbake for å fortsette kampen. I 1819 lyktes han i å befri Venezuela. Deretter marsjerte han over fjellene til Colombia og beseiret spanjolene også der, hvoretter han proklamerte opprettelsen av republikken Gran Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela, Panama og Ecuador), med ham selv som president. Målet var likevel å befri hele Sør-Amerika fra spanjolenes åk.
I 1823 tok Bolívar kommandoen over invasjonen av Peru, og i september kom han til Lima med general Sucre. Den 6. august 1824 beseiret de sammen den spanske hær i slaget ved Junin. Den 9. desember tok Sucre den siste spanske befestning i slaget ved Ayacucho, og det spanske styre i Sør-Amerika var dermed opphørt.
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A special year for Norway, 2014 both marks the bicentenary of the Norwegian constitution and – perhaps slightly less celebrated – the beginning of the union with Sweden. This article presents the military black powder small-arms that were used in the 91 year long Norwegian-Swedish union 1814–1905.
Published: 15. October 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 15. November 2008.
Many Norwegian black powder shooters have an old kammerlader lying around. If it is in good condition you can shoot it, but it may prove difficult to obtain proper bullets.
Find out more!
You can learn more about the Norwegian kammerlader rifles and their ammunition in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.
The original conical bullets
Conical bullet and cartridge used
by sharpshooters from 1849-1855.
You can ask yourself why a bullet that was supposed to be paper patched had grooves, unlike, for example, the smooth sided British paper patched Pritchett bullet that was used in the .577 Enfield muskets. The idea behind the grooves was not that they should be used as lubrication grooves, or grooves for scraping out powder fouling. A woollen thread was used to secure the patching paper to the bullet, but the thread was not tied in the grooves. Instead the thread was tied once in front of the nose and then behind the bullet. A lubricated thread in the grooves would probably have provided better lubrication than just the lubricated paper, but that's easy for us to say that can lean on 150 years of experience with the kammerlader. The explanation is probably that the grooves, or 'air grooves' as they were called, were supposed to move the weight of the bullet forward. By removing a lead by making the grooves it was tried to stabilise the bullet more in addition to the rotation stabilisation.
To the left: Copy of the sharpshooter bullet from 1849, and to the right
an original bullet of the type that was used from 1855.
The kammerlader bullets todayhttp://www.vapenmek.no/produkter/stopetang.htm or call +47 75 51 83 22.
I copied an original Model 1855 bullet and sent drawings to both Lee Presicion and NEI Handtools which both made moulds for me. The Lee moulds are of course made of aluminum, while the NEI moulds are manufactured in meehanite, which NEI describe as 'a very dense, free machining cast iron alloy'. I have had good results with these bullets, and there are about 50 of these moulds in circulation among Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch and American kammerlader shooters.