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29. April 1808

36 år gamle Nikolai Peder Dreyer døde etter sårene han fikk i kampene mot svenskene fire dager tidligere. ... Read more ...

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28. April 1808

Slaget ved Strömstad


29. April 1808

Kaptein Nicolay Peter Dreyer døde
36 år gamle Nikolai Peder Dreyer døde etter sårene han fikk i kampene mot svenskene fire dager tidligere. Under slaget ved Trangen 25. april 1808 førte han som kaptein en del av major Ræders bataljon. Da de norske soldatene i kampen begynte å vike for svenskene, hoppet Dreyer opp på en stubbe, der stod han, skjøt og kommanderte. Ifølge legenden fikk han to mann til å lade geværer for seg, men mens han stod på stubben ble han truffet flere ganger. Denne heroiske innsatsen fikk de norske soldatene til å fatte nytt mot, og de fikk da overtaket. Da han falt sammen ble han liggende på bakken mens han fortsatte å kommandere soldatene sine. Han ble dødelig såret og døde fire dager senere, på denne dag i 1808, på Sønsterud gård.

Dreyer ble født 1772 i Fosnes og var bosatt på Nesjestranda, hvor han leide en gård. Utenfor gården ble det senere reist en bauta til minne om kapteinens heroiske innsats. Han har også fått veiene Kaptein Dreyers vei oppkalt etter seg på Skålahalvøya og i Åsnes, forbi Sønsterud gård.

28. April 1808


Slaget ved Strömstad
Slaget ved Strömstad den 28. april 1808 er en av de siste sjøstrider i historien mellom nordmennene og svenskene. Etter den dansk-norske krigserklæringen den 14. mars 1808 mobiliserte de dansk-norske myndighetene de norske styrkene på tilsammen 36 000 mann, men bare en mindre del var deployert til forsvaret mot Sverige.

Kommandør Lorents Fisker som ved krigsutbruddet var utnevnt som sjef for det norske sjøforsvaret, samlet til seg 30 kanonbåter ved Hvalerøyene for å forsvare sjøvegene mot Østfold. I de første ukene sendte Fisker ut mindre kontingenter som gikk på land flere ganger i nordre Båhuslen, ved et nattlig overfall syd for Svinesund ble 18 svensker tatt til fange uten motstand av løytnant Ager.

Med cirka 24 til 27 kanonbåter, trolig 11 kanonjoller og 13 til 16 kanonsjalupper med en besetning på over 1000 mann og 37 kanonskyts, samt 40 mindre skyts, rekognoserte kommandør Fisker kysttraktene langs nordre Båhuslen. Fisker dro til farvannet utenfor Strömstad den 27. april fordi han fikk rapporter om at svenskene sendte mindre styrker sammen med kanonbåtene til det strategiske viktige havnestedet. Sjøslaget

Om morgenen den 28. april gikk den norske skjærgårdsflåten til angrep på Strömstad for å ødelegge de viktige forrådene der og de svenske kanonbåtene, og fordrive de svenske troppene som bevoktet forrådene. Kaptein Nordberg hadde forutsett dette og opprettet et landbatteri ved Furuholm som bevoktet innløpet til havnestedet. Der er sundet mellom Furuholm og Killingholm omkring 200 meter bredt.

Nordberg kom ut i sjøen med fem kanonsjalupper som rykket fram til midt i innløpet ved Furuholm. De hadde valgt et godt sted for forsvaret av innløpet, og sammen med landbatteriet holdt de stand mot en voldsom stor overlegenhet. I det trange farvannet maktet ikke nordmennene å fortsette mot den sterke ilden, deres overmakten var ikke mulig å bruke i slike forholder.

Etter en og en halv times skarp strid måtte nordmennene trekke seg tilbake med deres skadde kanonbåtene og et tap på 7 drepte og 4 hardt sårede. Svenskenes tap var på 4 døde og 15 sårede.

Rollene ble byttet en måned senere i Slaget ved Hvalerøyene, der 30 svenske kanonbåter ble stoppet og slått tilbake av 6 norske kanonbåter.


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    Featured article

    18 Bore Kammerlader Bullets

    Category: Norwegian kammerlader
    Published: 15. October 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Edited: 15. November 2008.
    Views: 12260

    Many Norwegian black powder shooters have an old kammerlader lying around. If it is in good condition you can shoot it, but it may prove difficult to obtain proper bullets.

    Kammerladerkuler

    Original paper cartridge Model 1861.

    To begin with from 1842 the common soldier used roundballs in the kammerlader. The ball ammunition was manufactured so that it could be loaded in all of the most common European military arms at that time. Smart, if Norway should end up in a war with another European country. Experiences from the war from 1807 to 1814 when the supply situation was precarious were probably taken into account. Our Swedish opponents had 20 mm calibre as standard up until 1811, and the ammunition that was captured from the Swedes could not be used in the smaller calibre Norwegian-Danish muskets. In the kammerlader it was possible to use ammunition made for the English .75 calibre Brown Bess muskets and most other European musket ammunition.

    Find out more!
    You can learn more about the Norwegian kammerlader rifles and their ammunition in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

    Kammerladerkuler

    Replica paper cartridges and bullets.

    Some sources claim that the roundballs used was 16 bore (17.5 mm). Harald Sunde mentions in his book 'Norske kammerladningsgeværer og karabiner for Hæren 1842-1877' that the roundballs weighed 2.4 lod or 37.34 grams (574 grains). Since this was pure lead balls it should indicate a diameter of about 18.3 mm (.72"). The following is just a guess, but I believe that the diameter of the roundballs may have been bigger compared to the diameter of the conical balls which were between 17.25 - 17.5 mm. The rifling diameter is nominal 17.84 mm, and it seems a bit unlikely that a roundball should be that much undersize compared to the rifling diameter in a breech-loader. It was relatively common during the black powder era for breech-loaders to be loaded with undersize conical bullets, but the conicals obdurate into the rifling by the exploding powder gases. This obduration does most likely not happen with roundballs. However, it is known that the rifling of the kammerlader rifles was cut deep to collect the powder fouling. The diameter of the breech-block is nominal 18.71 mm.

    The original conical bullets

    Kammerladerkuler

    Conical bullet and cartridge used
    by sharpshooters from 1849-1855.

    There were two types of conical bullets for the 18 bore Norwegian kammerlader. The first model was used by selected sharpshooters from 1849 to 1855. This was a very heavy bullet that weighed 54.5 grams (838 grains), and it had one groove. New conical bullets trials were initiated in 1852, and it was found that it was more practical with a lighter bullet. The new bullet was based on Tamisier's projectile which was modified for use in the kammerlader. The weight of the new bullet was 40.4 grams (623.5 grains) and it had two grooves. In 1855 it was decided that this bullet should be used in all kammerlader ammunition.

    You can ask yourself why a bullet that was supposed to be paper patched had grooves, unlike, for example, the smooth sided British paper patched Pritchett bullet that was used in the .577 Enfield muskets. The idea behind the grooves was not that they should be used as lubrication grooves, or grooves for scraping out powder fouling. A woollen thread was used to secure the patching paper to the bullet, but the thread was not tied in the grooves. Instead the thread was tied once in front of the nose and then behind the bullet. A lubricated thread in the grooves would probably have provided better lubrication than just the lubricated paper, but that's easy for us to say that can lean on 150 years of experience with the kammerlader. The explanation is probably that the grooves, or 'air grooves' as they were called, were supposed to move the weight of the bullet forward. By removing a lead by making the grooves it was tried to stabilise the bullet more in addition to the rotation stabilisation.

    Kammerladerkuler Kammerladerkuler

    To the left: Copy of the sharpshooter bullet from 1849, and to the right
    an original bullet of the type that was used from 1855.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The kammerlader bullets today

    Kammerladerkuler

    Drawing of the
    Model 1855 bullet.

    Understandably, there are no commercial bullet mould manufacturers that makes bullet moulds for the 18 bore kammerlader, but there are exceptions. Sture Schølin in Bodø, Norway is one of them. He makes an 18 bore mould that I bought a couple of years ago. His bullet has an extra belt in front of the front groove which the original bullets don't have. Except for some other minor differences, the bullet is pretty similar to the original bullet. A disadvantage is that the mould is expensive and rather poorly made. The mould costs 1110,- NOK ($194 or EUR 133) See his web site at: http://www.vapenmek.no/produkter/stopetang.htm or call +47 75 51 83 22.

    I copied an original Model 1855 bullet and sent drawings to both Lee Presicion and NEI Handtools which both made moulds for me. The Lee moulds are of course made of aluminum, while the NEI moulds are manufactured in meehanite, which NEI describe as 'a very dense, free machining cast iron alloy'. I have had good results with these bullets, and there are about 50 of these moulds in circulation among Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch and American kammerlader shooters.