Den sør-amerikanske uavhengighetslederen Simón Bolívar gikk inn i Mérida i spissen for invasjonen av Venezuela. Han ble utropt til folkets befrier og inntok Caracas den 6. august. To dager senere erklærte han Venezuelas andre... Read more ...
Simón Bolívar invaderte Venezuela
Den sør-amerikanske uavhengighetslederen Simón Bolívar gikk inn i Mérida i spissen for invasjonen av Venezuela. Han ble utropt til folkets befrier og inntok Caracas den 6. august. To dager senere erklærte han Venezuelas andre republikk.
Etter utallige stridigheter måtte Bolívar flykte og fikk i 1815 beskyttelse på Jamaica. I 1817 vendte han med haitisk hjelp tilbake for å fortsette kampen. I 1819 lyktes han i å befri Venezuela. Deretter marsjerte han over fjellene til Colombia og beseiret spanjolene også der, hvoretter han proklamerte opprettelsen av republikken Gran Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela, Panama og Ecuador), med ham selv som president. Målet var likevel å befri hele Sør-Amerika fra spanjolenes åk.
I 1823 tok Bolívar kommandoen over invasjonen av Peru, og i september kom han til Lima med general Sucre. Den 6. august 1824 beseiret de sammen den spanske hær i slaget ved Junin. Den 9. desember tok Sucre den siste spanske befestning i slaget ved Ayacucho, og det spanske styre i Sør-Amerika var dermed opphørt.
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Norwegian mountain man Jo Tjøstolsson Kleppe (1794–1884), also known as Jo Gjende, was a legendary reindeer hunter. A hermit for the better part of his life, he lived a lonely life in his cabin at Gjendeosen in Jotunheimen (The Home of the Giants) – a mountainous area in southern Norway. He spent his time hunting and reading books by the Age of Enlightenment\'s great philosophers, such as Voltaire and Volney. Known as a character and a crack rifle shot, Jo Gjende supposedly killed between 500 and 600 reindeer.
Published: 24. November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 25. November 2007.
Flintlock musket "by night". A spectacular sight, but many black powder weapons are accurate weapons as well.
2 Myths about Black powder Shooting
- It is a terrible recoil in black powder weapons.
- You won't hit a thing with them.
Both statements are far from being true. Black powder burns slowly and isn't by far as powerful as the modern powders. As an example we can use the enormous size of the Norwegian chamber loader from the 1850's: It fires a .69 calibre slug, but the recoil feels the same as if you were firing a 20 gauge shotgun. In other words, nothing to be afraid of. Most black powder guns are heavy and thus absorbing most of the recoil. Most black powder arms can be made to shoot very good, but it is sometimes hard work. Different loads, bullets and lubes has to be tested to achieve the best possible accuracy. In my opinion that is why so many new shooters give up the sport. The lack of guidance makes people fed up. But, with a little experience you'll quickly find out how you'll get a gun to shoot well, sometimes you will make it shoot just as well as an average quality modern arm. My tip is to never give up! When I first started shooting black powder I was a constant menace to everything but the target I was aiming at. In Norway the black powder shooters are members of the Norwegian Black powder Union (NSU): www.svartkruttunion.org
Find out more!
The upcoming book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms is perhaps the world's most comprehensive guide to black powder shooting.